Learn Using Apt Utilities On Ubuntu

September 18, 2019

Table of Contents

    Introduction

    This write up summarizes the use of apt-get and apt-cache command line utilities to install, remove, search, and find information on any Ubuntu/Debian system software packages.

    apt-get is a package management utility used to install, update, and remove software packages on Ubuntu and Debian based Linux systems.

    apt-cache is a utility used for searching and getting information on available software packages on Ubuntu and Debian based Linux systems.

    Commands

    # update package sources list
    sudo apt-get update
    
    # install a package (the -y flag auto answers yes)
    sudo apt-get install package name -y
    
    # search for a package
    sudo apt-cache search package name
    
    # show information about a package
    sudo apt-cache show package-name
    
    # uninstall a package
    sudo apt-get remove package-name
    
    # purge a package (will remove package along along with it's files)
    sudo apt-get purge package-name
    
    # uninstall unused dependencies (that remove/purge do not)
    sudo apt-get autoremove
    

    Personal Package Archives (PPA)

    PPAs are software packages provided by the community that generally contain the latest and greatest version of a software, but sometimes come with risks. So for example, at the time of this writing, PHP 7 is out but is not included in Ubuntu’s default package source list. To install on a server, one has to add the “ondrej/php” PPA first using the command apt-add-repository ppa:ondrej/php. After doing so, PHP 7 becomes available to install using apt-get after an update (i.e. sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install php-7.0).

    Below is how you add and remove PPA’s on Ubuntu/Debian systems.

    # add a PPA
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:author/ppa-name
    
    # remove a PPA
    sudo add-apt-repository --remove ppa:author/ppa-name
    

    Handy Aliases

    A bash alias is a shortcut/abbreviation that prevents you from typing a long command sequence. Adding below snippet to your ~/.bash_profile allows you to for example install nginx using apti nginx as oppose to sudo apt-get install nginx.

    alias apti="sudo apt-get install"
    alias aptr="sudo apt-get remove"
    alias aptar="sudo apt-get autoremove"
    alias aptp="sudo apt-get purge"
    alias apts="sudo apt-cache search"
    alias aptinfo="sudo apt-cache show"
    
    alias addppa="sudo add-apt-repository"
    alias removeppa="sudo add-apt-repository --remove"
    

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